Medial meniscal extrusion: Detection, evaluation and clinical implications

Nayanatara Swamy, Vibhor Wadhwa, Gitanjali Bajaj, Avneesh Chhabra, Tarun Pandey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


The menisci play an important role in knee kinematics. Their unique anatomy allows them to channel forces generated during knee movements through the larger tibio-femoral condylar surfaces while simultaneously resisting deleterious hoop stresses. Although physiologic meniscal extrusion occurs with every knee joint movement, pathologic meniscal extrusion subjects the knee to persistent and excessive load transmission. This renders the knee structures susceptible to injury or exacerbates worsening of existing knee joint internal derangement. Detection and quantification of meniscus extrusion is important given its association with underlying pathological processes and internal derangements such as cartilage loss, osteoarthritis and meniscal tears. The medial and lateral menisci vary in size, attachments and load transmission, and the medial meniscus is more susceptible to injury. In this article, the authors illustrate the role of meniscus kinematics, and the identification and quantification of medial meniscal extrusion. Multimodality imaging appearances and implications of presence of medial meniscal extrusion in different knee joint pathologies are discussed with review of the relevant literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)115-124
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Radiology
StatePublished - May 2018


  • Hoop stress
  • Medial meniscus extrusion
  • Meniscus tear
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Root tear

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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