Measurement of glutathione in human brain at 3T using an improved double quantum filter in vivo

Changho Choi, Chenguang Zhao, Ivan Dimitrov, Deborah Douglas, Nicholas J. Coupland, Sanjay Kalra, Halima Hawesa, Jeannie Davis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


A single voxel proton NMR double quantum filter (DQF) for measurement of glutathione (GSH) in human brain at 3T is reported. Yield enhancement for the CH2 resonances of the cysteine moiety at 2.95 ppm has been achieved by means of dual encoding. After the preparation of double quantum and zero quantum coherences (DQC and ZQC) at equal magnitude, the first DQC encoding was followed by interchange of DQC and ZQC, and another DQC encoding. The multi-quantum coherences were fully utilized to generate a GSH target signal at ∼2.95 ppm. The optimal echo time and the editing efficiency were obtained with numerical analysis of the filtering performance and phantom measurements. The dual-DQC encoding method provided GSH yield greater by a factor of 2.1 than single-DQC encoding for identical slice-selective RF pulses in phantom tests. Using the phantom relaxation times and the ratio of edited GSH to N-acetylaspartate (NAA) 2.0-ppm peak areas, the concentration of GSH in the medial parietal cortex of the healthy human brain in vivo was estimated to be 1.0 ± 0.3 mM (mean ± SD, n = 7), with reference to NAA at 10 mM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)160-166
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2009


  • Double quantum filtering
  • Dual DQC encoding
  • Glutathione
  • Human brain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Nuclear and High Energy Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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