Lymphovascular invasion in clear cell renal cell carcinoma-Association with disease-free and cancer-specific survival

Michael Belsante, Oussama Darwish, Ramy Youssef, Aditya Bagrodia, Payal Kapur, Arthur I Sagalowsky, Yair Lotan, Vitaly Margulis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Objectives: The objective is to evaluate the effect of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with clinically localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Methods: Patients with ccRCC who were treated surgically in 1997 to 2010 were identified. Retrospective chart review was performed to identify clinical outcomes. Independent pathologic re-review was performed by a single pathologist to confirm LVI status. Pathologic features were correlated with clinical outcomes using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. Results: Four hundred and nineteen patients with nonmetastatic ccRCC comprised the study cohort. Three hundred and thirty-three of these patients had an organ-confined (pT1-2, N any, and M0) disease. LVI was present in 14.3% of all nonmetastatic patients. In all patients with nonmetastatic ccRCC, presence of LVI was correlated with significantly shorter DFS (P <0.001) and CSS (P = 0.001) on Kaplan-Meier analysis. In cases of organ-confined, nonmetastatic ccRCC, presence of LVI was a significant predictor of DFS (hazard ratio = 4.0, P = 0.026) and CSS (hazard ratio = 12.7, P = 0.01) on multivariate analysis. Patients with organ-confined RCC who were LVI positive had similar DFS (P = 0.957) and CSS (P = 0.799) to patients with locally advanced tumors (pT3-pT4, N any, and M0) on Kaplan-Meier analysis. Conclusions: The presence of LVI is an independent predictor of both DFS and CSS in organ-confined, nonmetastatic ccRCC. LVI positivity in patients with otherwise pathologically organ-confined ccRCC confers oncologic outcomes similar to those of patients with locally advanced disease. If confirmed by others, future revisions to the tumor-node-metastasis staging system may incorporate LVI status into the prognostic algorithm of patients with RCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)30.e23-30.e28
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014


  • Clinical outcomes
  • Lymphovascular invasion
  • Nephrectomy
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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