Location, location, location: Tissue-specific regulation of immune responses

Wei Hu, Chandrashekhar Pasare

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

63 Scopus citations


Discovery of DCs and PRRs has contributed immensely to our understanding of induction of innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of PRRs leads to secretion of inflammatory cytokines that regulate priming and differentiation of antigen-specific T and B lymphocytes. Pathogens enter the body via different routes, and although the same set of PRRs is likely to be activated, it is becoming clear that the route of immune challenge determines the nature of outcome of adaptive immunity. In addition to the signaling events initiated following innate-immune receptor activation, the cells of the immune system are influenced by the microenvironments in which they reside, and this has a direct impact on the resulting immune response. Specifically, immune responses could be influenced by specialized DCs, specific factors secreted by stromal cells, and also, by commensal microbiota present in certain organs. Following microbial detection, the complex interactions among DCs, stromal cells, and tissue-specific factors influence outcome of immune responses. In this review, we summarize recent findings on the phenotypic heterogeneity of innate and adaptive immune cells and how tissue-specific factors in the systemic and mucosal immune system influence the outcome of adaptive-immune responses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)409-421
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Leukocyte Biology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2013


  • Dendritic cell
  • Microbiota
  • Microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Cell Biology


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