Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk prediction is increasingly important because of the low annual HCC incidence in patients with the rapidly emerging non-alcoholic fatty liver disease or cured HCV infection. To date, numerous clinical HCC risk biomarkers and scores have been reported in literature. However, heterogeneity in clinico-epidemiological context, e.g., liver disease etiology, patient race/ethnicity, regional environmental exposure, and lifestyle-related factors, obscure their real clinical utility and applicability. Proper characterization of these factors will help refine HCC risk prediction according to certain clinical context/scenarios and contribute to improved early HCC detection. Molecular factors underlying the clinical heterogeneity encompass various features in host genetics, hepatic and systemic molecular dysregulations, and cross-organ interactions, which may serve as clinical-context-specific biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets. Toward the goal to enable individual-risk-based HCC screening by incorporating the HCC risk biomarkers/scores, their assessment in patient with well-defined clinical context/scenario is critical to gauge their real value and to maximize benefit of the tailored patient management for substantial improvement of the poor HCC prognosis.