Levodopa-induced dyskinesias in Parkinson's disease: Etiology, impact on quality of life, and treatments

Elmyra V. Encarnacion, Robert A. Hauser

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

60 Scopus citations


Levodopa is the most effective agent to alleviate motor dysfunction in Parkinson's disease but its long-term use is associated with the development of dyskinesias. Although the pathogenic processes behind the development of levodopa-induced dyskinesias are still being elucidated, it appears that chronic administration of this short-lived agent results in nonphysiologic pulsatile stimulation of striatal neurons and abnormal firing patterns in the basal ganglia. Dyskinesias have been associated with decreased quality of life, and a number of methodologies to evaluate severity of dyskinesias are now available. Strategies to avoid, reduce, or eliminate dyskinesias include providing more continuous dopaminergic stimulation, administering an antidyskinetic agent, and surgery. Several new compounds that may provide an antidyskinetic effect are also under investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)57-66
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Neurology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Dyskinesia
  • Levodopa
  • Management
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Quality of life
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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