Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery in urology: Worldwide multi-institutional analysis of 1076 cases

Jihad H. Kaouk, Riccardo Autorino, Fernando J. Kim, Deok Hyun Han, Seung Wook Lee, Sun Yinghao, Jeffrey A Cadeddu, Ithaar H. Derweesh, Lee Richstone, Luca Cindolo, Anibal Branco, Francesco Greco, Mohamad Allaf, René Sotelo, Evangelos Liatsikos, Jens Uwe Stolzenburg, Abhay Rane, Wesley M. White, Woong Kyu Han, Georges Pascal HaberMichael A. White, Wilson R. Molina, Byong Chang Jeong, Joo Yong Lee, Wang Linhui, Sara Best, Sean P. Stroup, Soroush Rais-Bahrami, Luigi Schips, Paolo Fornara, Phillip Pierorazio, Camilo Giedelman, Jae Won Lee, Robert J. Stein, Koon Ho Rha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

241 Scopus citations


Background: Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) has gained popularity in urology over the last few years. Objective: To report a large multi-institutional worldwide series of LESS in urology. Design, setting, and participants: Consecutive cases of LESS done between August 2007 and November 2010 at 18 participating institutions were included in this retrospective analysis. Intervention: Each group performed a variety of LESS procedures according to its own protocols, entry criteria, and techniques. Measurements: Demographic data, main perioperative outcome parameters, and information related to the surgical technique were gathered and analyzed. Conversions to reduced-port laparoscopy, conventional laparoscopy, or open surgery were evaluated, as were intraoperative and postoperative complications. Results and limitations: Overall, 1076 patients were included in the analysis. The most common procedures were extirpative or ablative operations in the upper urinary tract. The da Vinci robot was used to operate on 143 patients (13%). A single-port technique was most commonly used and the umbilicus represented the most common access site. Overall, operative time was 160 ± 93 min and estimated blood loss was 148 ± 234 ml. Skin incision length at closure was 3.5 ± 1.5 cm. Mean hospital stay was 3.6 ± 2.7 d with a visual analog pain score at discharge of 1.5 ± 1.4. An additional port was used in 23% of cases. The overall conversion rate was 20.8%; 15.8% of patients were converted to reduced-port laparoscopy, 4% to conventional laparoscopy/robotic surgery, and 1% to open surgery. The intraoperative complication rate was 3.3%. Postoperative complications, mostly low grade, were encountered in 9.5% of cases. Conclusions: This study provides a global view of the evolution of LESS in the field of minimally invasive urologic surgery. A broad range of procedures have been effectively performed, primarily in the academic setting, within diverse health care systems around the world. Since LESS is performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons, the risk of complications remains low when stringent patient-selection criteria are applied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)998-1005
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean urology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • LESS
  • Laparoendoscopic single-site surgery
  • Multi-institutional
  • Robotics
  • Scarless surgery
  • Single-port laparoscopy
  • Urology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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