Is preoperative anemia a risk factor for upper tract urothelial carcinoma following radical nephroureterectomy?

Hsin Chih Yeh, Tsu Ming Chien, Wen Jeng Wu, Ching Chia Li, Wei Ming Li, Hung Lung Ke, Yii Her Chou, Chii Jye Wang, Shu Pin Huang, Chien Feng Li, Peir In Liang, Chun Nung Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Purpose We aimed to identify the effect of preoperative anemia on oncologic outcomes in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) who had different levels of renal function. Methods Between 2000 and 2013, we enrolled 370 patients who underwent radical nephroureterectomy for nonmetastatic UTUC. Preoperative anemia was defined as hemoglobin <130 g/l in men and <120 g/l in women based on the World Health Organization classification. Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the effect anemia on survival, and hazard ratios (HR) of anemia and other clinicopathological parameters were evaluated by Cox regression model. The analyses were also performed in patients with different chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages. Results In all, 242 (65.4%) patients were anemic before surgery. Those with preoperative anemia had worse CKD stage (P<0.001) and higher pathological tumor stage (P = 0.023). In univariate analysis, metastasis-free and cancer-specific survival rates were not significantly associated with preoperative anemia (HR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.93–2.44, P = 0.093 and HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.93–2.72, PP = 0.094, respectively). However, in patients without stage 5 CKD, those with preoperative anemia had apparently inferior metastasis-free and cancer-specific survival than those without (HR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.14–3.01, P = 0.014 and HR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.16–3.56, P = 0.010, respectively). A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model indicated that preoperative anemia was an independent predictor for both metastasis-free (HR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.21–3.90, P = 0.010) and cancer-specific survival (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.15–4.21, P = 0.017). Conclusions Among patients without stage 5 CKD, preoperative anemia was a significant prognostic factor to predict metastatic progression and cancer-specific death in UTUC following radical nephroureterectomy. It was important to be aware of patients׳ renal function while evaluating the effect of anemia on outcome of UTUC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337.e1-337.e9
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Anemia
  • Metastasis
  • Prognosis
  • Upper tract urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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