Is level of exposure to a 12-step facilitation therapy associated with treatment outcome?

Elizabeth A. Wells, Dennis M. Donovan, Dennis C. Daley, Suzanne R. Doyle, Greg Brigham, Sharon B. Garrett, Michelle H. Ingalsbe, Mary A. Hatch-Maillette, Harold I. Perl, Robrina Walker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


This study examined whether level of exposure to Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12), a 12-Step facilitative therapy, is related to treatment outcome. Data were from a large National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) study comparing STAGE-12 combined with treatment-as-usual (TAU) to TAU alone. These analyses include only those randomized to STAGE-12 (n= 234). Assessments occurred at baseline and 30, 60, 90, and 180. days following randomization. High-exposure patients (n= 158; attended at least 2 of 3 individual, and 3 of 5 group, sessions), compared to those with less exposure (n= 76), demonstrated: (1) higher odds of self-reported abstinence from, and lower rates of, stimulant and non-stimulant drug use; (2) lower probabilities of stimulant-positive urines; (3) more days of attending and lower odds of not attending 12-Step meetings; (4) greater likelihood of reporting no drug problems; (5) more days of duties at meetings; and (6) more types of 12-Step activities. Many of these differences declined over time, but several were still significant by the last follow-up. Treatment and research implications are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)265-274
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2014


  • 12-Step
  • 12-Step facilitation
  • Cocaine
  • Intensive referral
  • Methamphetamine
  • Treatment exposure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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