Intratumoral injection of GM-CSF in perspective - A review

Stephen Brooks, Hiroshi Takita, Kyu Shin, Yisheng Fang, Mary Vaughan, Sanjay Sharma, Constantine P. Karakousis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Reviewed evidence suggests that immunologic adjuvants released in the process of inflammation may facilitate the recognition and immune response to weak antigens such as tumor associated antigens. The mechanism of tumor progression vis-a-vis the immune system is more likely the release by the tumor cells of immunosuppressive factors locally within the tumor microenvironment rather than systemic immunosuppression. Intratumoral injection of GM-CSF results often in partial regression of the injected nodules and occasionally of non-injected nodules with marked infiltration by dendritic cells and eosinophils at injected sites. Research among the various cytokines for intratumoral injection represents a promising lead for future developments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)149-153
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Medicine
Issue number1-6
StatePublished - 2003


  • Cytokines
  • Intratumoral injection
  • Mechanism of tumor progression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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