Intraoperative detection of liver tumors aided by a fluorescence goggle system and multimodal imaging

Yang Liu, Walter J. Akers, Adam Q. Bauer, Suman Mondal, Kyle Gullicksrud, Gail P. Sudlow, Joseph P. Culver, Samuel Achilefu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Real-time image guidance in the operating room is needed to improve instantaneous surgical decisions. Toward this goal, we utilized a new fluorescence goggle system and a near-infrared fluorescent dye approved for human use, indocyanine green, to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting liver tumors intraoperatively. The fluorescence goggle provided successful imaging of multifocal breast cancer metastases in mouse liver. Diffused tumor deposits as small as 0.8 mm in diameter were detected, which were not obvious without the fluorescence goggle. A combination of surface-weighted fluorescence imaging and deep tissue-sensitive ultrasound imaging allowed comprehensive image guidance with the fluorescence goggle system for tumor resection in a rabbit VX2 liver metastasis model. This multimodal detection and guided surgical intervention strategy using ultrasonic imaging and real-time intraoperative fluorescence guidance is a promising and innovative technology platform for improving surgical outcome of human patients with primary or metastatic liver cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2254-2257
Number of pages4
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 18 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry


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