International union of pharmacology. LX. Retinoic acid receptors

Pierre Germain, Pierre Chambon, Gregor Eichele, Ronald M. Evans, Mitchell A. Lazar, Mark Leid, Angel R. De Lera, Reuben Lotan, David J. Mangelsdorf, Hinrich Gronemeyer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

340 Scopus citations


Retinoid is a term for compounds that bind to and activate retinoic acid receptors (RARα, RARβ, and RARγ), members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The most important endogenous retinoid is all-trans-retinoic acid. Retinoids regulate a wide variety of essential biological processes, such as vertebrate embryonic morphogenesis and organogenesis, cell growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis, and homeostasis, as well as their disorders. This review summarizes the considerable amount of knowledge generated on these receptors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)712-725
Number of pages14
JournalPharmacological reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology


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