Innate immune sensing and its roots: The story of endotoxin

Bruce Beutler, Ernst Th Rietschel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1092 Scopus citations


How does the host sense pathogens? Our present concepts grew directly from longstanding efforts to understand infectious disease: how microbes harm the host, what molecules are sensed and, ultimately, the nature of the receptors that the host uses. The discovery of the host sensors - the Toll-like receptors - was rooted in chemical, biological and genetic analyses that centred on a bacterial poison, termed endotoxin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-176
Number of pages8
JournalNature Reviews Immunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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