Background: Increased body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been associated with adverse outcomes in viral syndromes. We sought to examine associations of increased BMI and MetS on several clinical outcomes in patients tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: The registry of suspected COVID-19 in emergency care (RECOVER) is an observational study of SARS-CoV-2-tested patients (n=27,051) across 155 United States emergency departments (EDs). We used multivariable logistic regression to test for associations of several predictor variables with various clinical outcomes. Results: We found that a BMI ≥30 kg/m2 increased odds of SARS-CoV-2 test positivity (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.38), while MetS reduced odds of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.82). Adjusted multivariable analysis found that MetS was significantly associated with the need for admission (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.89-2.37), intensive care unit (ICU) care (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.40-1.78), intubation (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.28-1.66), mortality (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.13-1.48), and venous thromboembolism (OR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.07-2.13) in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Similarly, BMI ≥40 kg/m2 was significantly associated with ICU care (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.65-2.35), intubation (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 2.22-3.26), and mortality (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.22-1.84). Conclusion: In this large nationwide sample of ED patients, we report a significant association of both high BMI and composite MetS with poor outcomes in SARS-CoV-2-positive patients. Findings suggest that composite MetS profile may be a more universal predictor of adverse disease outcomes, while the impact of BMI is more heavily modulated by SARS-CoV-2 status.
- Body mass index
- Metabolic syndrome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism