In-hospital mortality benefit of inferior vena cava filters in patients with pulmonary embolism and congestive heart failure

Vibhor Wadhwa, Narendra B. Gutta, Premal S. Trivedi, Kshitij Chatterjee, Osman Ahmed, Robert K. Ryu, Sanjeeva P. Kalva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with a higher mortality rate in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) than in those without heart failure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement provides any mortality benefit in patients admitted with CHF and PE. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The 2005–2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) was used for this study. Adults (≥ 18 years old) with PE were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes. Patients with CHF were identified using the Elixhauser comorbidity variable (CM_CHF) in the NIS database. IVC filter placement was identified using the ICD-9-CM procedure code 38.7 (interruption of the vena cava). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association of IVC filter placement with in-hospital mortality. The model was adjusted for demographics, hospital characteristics, comorbidities, and PE severity indexes (pressor dependence, mechanical ventilation, nonseptic shock, and use of thrombolytic therapy). RESULTS. During the study years, 425,877 patients with a comorbidity of CHF were hospitalized with PE (44% male; mean age, 71.5 years old). Of them, 67,237 patients (15.8%) received an IVC filter during the admission, and 50,338 (11.8%) died during the hospital stay. The all-cause in-hospital mortality rate among patients who received an IVC filter was 9.7% (6541 of 67,237 patients) compared with 12.2% (43,796 of 358,638 patients) among those without an IVC filter (p < 0.001), with an absolute risk reduction of 2.5%. The multivariate adjusted hazard ratio of in-hospital mortality associated with IVC filter placement was 0.535 (95% CI, 0.518–0.551; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION. A lower all-cause mortality rate was observed in patients with CHF and PE who received an IVC filter while hospitalized. In the absence of data from randomized controlled trials, this study suggests that IVC filters could help prevent in-hospital death among patients admitted with PE and CHF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)672-676
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Roentgenology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2018


  • Congestive heart failure
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Inferior vena cava filter
  • Nationwide inpatient sample
  • Pulmonary embolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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