Improving diagnostic molecular tests to monitor urothelial carcinoma recurrence

Laura Maria Krabbe, Solomon L. Woldu, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Yair Lotan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Introduction: The high recurrence rates associated with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer require close surveillance with cystoscopy, an invasive and expensive procedure with risk of missing cancer. Finding an accurate urinary biomarker that can detect recurrent disease would represent a significant advancement in management. Areas covered: This review summarizes the commercially-available urinary biomarkers including cytology, UroVysion, BTA, NMP22, uCyt+, and Cxbladder assays. Additionally, we review recent investigational urinary biomarkers that hold promise in bladder cancer surveillance. Expert commentary: The quest for a reliable urinary biomarker for bladder cancer is decades-old and seems intuitive given the direct contact of urine with malignant urothelium. Beyond urine cytology, there are many commercially-available products approved for surveillance. However, none of the assays are routinely used due to lack of sensitivity and/or specificity. As such, emerging technologies, in particular the ‘–omic’ technologies have resulted in a proliferation of promising reports on novel biomarkers in recent literature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1189-1199
Number of pages11
JournalExpert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016


  • Bladder cancer
  • follow-up
  • molecular biomarker
  • non-muscle invasive
  • surveillance
  • transitional cell carcinoma
  • urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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