Impact of sex on outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention for chronic total occlusion: A meta-analysis

Azka Latif, Muhammad Junaid Ahsan, Noman Lateef, Sarah Aurit, Mohsin M. Mirza, Jolanta M. Siller-Matula, Mamas A. Mamas, Manish Parikh, Emmanouil S. Brilakis, J. Dawn Abbott, Deepak L. Bhatt, Poonam Velagapudi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Women are underrepresented in chronic total occlusion (CTO) trials and little is known about sex differences in the outcomes of CTO percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). This meta-analysis aims to compare the outcomes of CTO PCI in males and females. Methods: A comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and Google Scholar was performed for studies comparing outcomes of CTO PCI in females versus males from inception to January 26, 2021. The current statistical analysis was performed using STATA version 15.1 software (Stata Corporation, TX); P < 0.05 indicated statistical significance. Results: Fourteen observational studies were included in the analysis with 75% males and 25% females. The mean age was 64.47 ± 10.5 years and 68.98 ± 9.5 years for males and females, respectively. The median follow-up duration was 2.4 years. Males had a higher Japanese-CTO (J-CTO) score compared with females (MD = −0.17; 95% CI: −0.25 to −0.10). Females had statistically higher success rates of CTO PCI (RR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 to1.05), required less contrast volume (MD = −18.64: 95% CI: −30.89 to −6.39) and fluoroscopy time (MD = −9.12; 95% CI: −16.90 to −1.34) compared with males. There was no statistical difference in in-hospital (RR = 1.50; 95% CI: 0.73 to 3.09) or longer term (≥6 months) all-cause mortality (RR = 1.10; 95% CI: 0.86 to 1.42) between the two groups. Conclusions: CTO PCI is feasible and safe in female patients with comparable outcomes in female versus male patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)254-262
Number of pages9
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • chronic total occlusion
  • coronary artery disease
  • gender/sex difference
  • meta-analysis
  • outcomes
  • percutaneous coronary intervention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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