Impact of preoperative plasma levels of interleukin 6 and interleukin 6 soluble receptor on disease outcomes after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer

Victor M. Schuettfort, Benjamin Pradere, Quoc Dien Trinh, David D’Andrea, Fahad Quhal, Hadi Mostafaei, Ekaterina Laukhtina, Keiichiro Mori, Reza Sari Motlagh, Michael Rink, Pierre I. Karakiewicz, Piotr Chlosta, Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Yair Lotan, Douglas Scherr, Mohammad Abufaraj, Marco Moschini, Shahrokh F. Shariat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: Preoperative plasma levels of Interleukin 6 (IL6) and its soluble receptor (IL6sR) have previously been associated with oncologic outcomes in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB); however, external validation in patients treated with radical cystectomy (RC) for UCB is missing. Patients/methods: We prospectively collected preoperative plasma from 1,036 consecutive patients at two institutes. These plasma specimens were assessed for levels of IL6 and IL6sR. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the correlation of plasma levels with pathologic and survival outcomes. The additional clinical net benefits of preoperative IL6 and IL6sR were evaluated using decision curve analysis (DCA). Results: Median IL6 and IL6sR plasma levels were significantly higher in patients with adverse pathologic features. Elevated biomarker levels were independently associated with an increased risk for lymph node metastasis and ≥ pT3 disease. Both biomarkers were independently associated with recurrence-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). The addition to, respectively, fitted pre- and postoperative prognostic models improved the predictive accuracy for lymph node metastasis, ≥ pT3 disease, RFS and CSS on DCA. Interpretation: We confirmed that elevated preoperative plasma levels of IL6 and IL6sR levels are associated with worse oncological disease survival in patients treated with RC for UCB in a large multicenter study. Both biomarkers hold potential in identifying patients with adverse pathological features that may benefit from intensified/multimodal therapy and warrant inclusion into predictive/prognostic models. They demonstrated the ability to improve the discriminatory power of such models and thus guide clinical decision making.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)85-95
Number of pages11
JournalCancer Immunology, Immunotherapy
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • Biomarker
  • Bladder cancer
  • Interleukin 6
  • Interleukin 6 soluble receptor
  • MIBC
  • Urothelial carcinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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