Impact of Induction With VCD Versus VRD on the Outcome of Patients With Multiple Myeloma After an Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Aimaz Afrough, Oren Pasvolsky, Junsheng Ma, Samer Srour, Qaiser Bashir, Neeraj Saini, Chitra Hosing, Uday R. Popat, Partow Kebriaei, Ruby Delgado, Muhammad R. Ullah, Regan Murphy, Elisabet E. Manasanch, Hans C. Lee, Gregory P. Kaufman, Krina K. Patel, Sheeba K. Thomas, Donna M. Weber, Robert Z. Orlowski, Elizabeth J. ShpallRichard E. Champlin, Muzaffar H. Qazilbash

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Induction therapy with a triplet regimen, followed by high-dose therapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT), is the standard of care for newly diagnosed, transplant-eligible patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Bortezomib-dexamethasone with cyclophosphamide (VCD) or lenalidomide (VRD) are the most used induction regimens. However, previous studies comparing VCD and VRD showed disparate results. The goal of this retrospective study was to compare the “real-world” results of VCD and VRD in transplant-eligible MM patients outside of a clinical trial. We identified 322 patients who received VRD or VCD induction before auto-HCT at our institution. All patients received melphalan conditioning and single-agent lenalidomide maintenance therapy. Overall, 114 patients received VCD, and 208 received VRD. The median age at auto-HCT was 61.9 years (range 33.9-79.6), with 35.4% (114/322) of the cohort being 65 years of age or older. The overall response rate was 99.7% after auto-HCT, with a significantly lower complete remission rate as the final response in the VCD compared to the VRD group (34% versus 53%; P = .001). However, there was no significant difference between the best response rate of very good partial response (VGPR) or better in the VCD compared to the VRD group (92% versus 85%; P = .078). The median duration of ≥VGPR was 50.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.0-69.1) for both cohorts, and there was no difference between VCD and VRD (P = .769; hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.69-1.31). Median follow-up of survivors was 73 months. There was no difference in the relapse rate between VCD and VRD (P = .749). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 48.7 months in the VCD and 44.6 months in the VRD group (P = .858). Median overall survival (OS) was 103.8 months with VCD and 101.7 months with VRD (P = .891). At 5 years, the PFS and OS were 38.1% and 76.9% for the VCD group, respectively, and 40.7% and 74.6% for the VRD group, respectively. On multivariate analysis for OS in the entire cohort, Revised International Staging System I and post-auto-HCT best response of stringent complete response (sCR)/CR emerged as significant predictors of superior OS. There was no impact of the type of induction regimen on the OS in the multivariate analysis. Induction therapy with VCD compared to VRD was associated with a lower CR rate, but there was no difference in PFS or OS between the 2 regimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)307.e1-307.e8
JournalTransplantation and Cellular Therapy
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Induction therapy
  • Multiple myeloma
  • VCD
  • VRD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Transplantation
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Medicine(all)


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