Immunotherapy in kidney cancer: The past, present, and future

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Purpose of review Kidney cancer, in particular clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has long been considered to be sensitive to immunotherapies. With the recent breakthroughs in immunotherapy for solid tumors and the recent approval of the first immune checkpoint inhibitor for ccRCC, we are reviewing the history of immunotherapy in kidney cancer, describing its current state and look into the future of a rapidly evolving landscape in immunotherapy for kidney cancer. Recent findings Systemic treatment options over the past decade have been dominated by targeted therapies inhibiting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. With the approval of the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab, a new era of potential combination therapies is about to shape the treatment landscape for kidney cancer. These include other immune checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., anti-CTLA4), modifiers of the tumor microenvironment (VEGF pathway, T cell agonists (anti-41BB and Ox40 antibodies), and novel vaccination strategies). Summary With the development of more effective combination immunotherapies, we will witness significant changes in the treatment landscape for kidney cancer over the next few years. Combination immunotherapies are expected to become the first line treatment option in kidney cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)543-547
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent opinion in urology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Oct 1 2016


  • Adoptive therapy
  • Immune checkpoints
  • Kidney cancer
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


Dive into the research topics of 'Immunotherapy in kidney cancer: The past, present, and future'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this