Hyperpolarized <sup>13</sup>C Magnetic Resonance and Its Use in Metabolic Assessment of Cultured Cells and Perfused Organs

Lloyd Lumata, Chendong Yang, Mukundan Ragavan, Nicholas Carpenter, Ralph J. DeBerardinis, Matthew E. Merritt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Diseased tissue is often characterized by abnormalities in intermediary metabolism. Observing these alterations in situ may lead to an improved understanding of pathological processes and novel ways to monitor these processes noninvasively in human patients. Although <sup>13</sup>C is a stable isotope safe for use in animal models of disease as well as human subjects, its utility as a metabolic tracer has largely been limited to ex vivo analyses employing analytical techniques like mass spectrometry or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Neither of these techniques is suitable for noninvasive metabolic monitoring, and the low abundance and poor gyromagnetic ratio of conventional <sup>13</sup>C make it a poor nucleus for imaging. However, the recent advent of hyperpolarization methods, particularly dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), makes it possible to enhance the spin polarization state of <sup>13</sup>C by many orders of magnitude, resulting in a temporary amplification of the signal sufficient for monitoring kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living tissue through magnetic resonance spectroscopy or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we review DNP techniques to monitor metabolism in cultured cells, perfused hearts, and perfused livers, focusing on our experiences with hyperpolarized [1-<sup>13</sup>C]pyruvate. We present detailed approaches to optimize the DNP procedure, streamline biological sample preparation, and maximize detection of specific metabolic activities. We also discuss practical aspects in the choice of metabolic substrates for hyperpolarization studies and outline some of the current technical and conceptual challenges in the field, including efforts to use hyperpolarization to quantify metabolic rates in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)73-106
Number of pages34
JournalMethods in Enzymology
StatePublished - Sep 9 2015


  • Cancer metabolism
  • Carbon-13
  • Hyperpolarization
  • Imaging
  • Metabolic flux
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance
  • Pyruvate
  • Warburg effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'Hyperpolarized <sup>13</sup>C Magnetic Resonance and Its Use in Metabolic Assessment of Cultured Cells and Perfused Organs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this