Hormone-regulated transcriptomes: Lessons learned from estrogen signaling pathways in breast cancer cells

Nasun Hah, W. Lee Kraus

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


Recent rapid advances in next generation sequencing technologies have expanded our understanding of steroid hormone signaling to a genome-wide level. In this review, we discuss the use of a novel genomic approach, global nuclear run-. on coupled with massively parallel sequencing (GRO-seq), to explore new facets of the steroid hormone-regulated transcriptome, especially estrogen responses in breast cancer cells. GRO-seq is a high throughput sequencing method adapted from conventional nuclear run-on methodologies, which is used to obtain a map of the position and orientation of all transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerases across the genome with extremely high spatial resolution. GRO-seq, which is an excellent tool for examining transcriptional responses to extracellular stimuli, has been used to comprehensively assay the effects of estrogen signaling on the transcriptome of ERα-positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. These studies have revealed new details about estrogen-dependent transcriptional regulation, including effects on transcription by all three RNA polymerases, complex transcriptional dynamics in response to estrogen signaling, and identification novel, unannotated non-coding RNAs. Collectively, these studies have been useful in discerning the molecular logic of the estrogen-regulated mitogenic response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)652-664
Number of pages13
JournalMolecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 25 2014


  • Breast cancer cells
  • Estrogen
  • Estrogen receptor
  • GRO-seq
  • Non-coding RNA
  • Transcriptome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Endocrinology


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