Prolonged starvation is known to induce significant alterations in several cardiac lysosomal enzymes, particularly the acid proteinase cathepsin D. To determine what specific factors might mediate these changes, fetal mouse hearts in organ culture were maintained in media designed to simulate selected hormonal or nutritional substrate changes that accompany starvation. Reduced concentrations of glucose caused an increase in the activity of β acetylglucosaminidase but had no effect on cathepsin D or acid phosphatase activities (i.e., effects opposite from those of starvation). Also, high concentrations of free fatty acid, acetoacetate, and β OH butyrate induced an increase in cathepsin D (+18%) and a simultaneous decrease in glucosaminidase (-19%), with little change in acid phosphatase. Furthermore, glucagon had no effect on any of the enzymes, whereas growth hormone caused a small (6%) increase in cathepsin D activity. In addition, insulin deprivation caused significant increases (7-25%) in the activities of all three enzymes. Insulin deprivation and excess ketones, but not the other interventions, increased the proportion of enzyme activity which was nonsedimentable. These results suggest the possibility that lysosomal alterations during starvation may be related in part to prolonged insulin deficiency and exposure to high concentrations of ketones and free fatty acids.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine