Holoprosencephaly: A review

Nancy J. Clegg, Kandy L. Gerace, Steven P. Sparagana, Jin S. Hahn, Mauricio R. Delgado

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a brain malformation characterized by incomplete cleavage of the cerebral hemispheres and deep brain structures. Epilepsy is a common problem in children with HPE and a vast majority will have abnormal EEGs. A variety of EEG findings, including spike-and-slow-wave complexes, hypsarrhythmia, isoelectric patterns, periodic discharges, fast anterior rhythms, posterior gradient flattening, asynchronous high amplitude rhythmic activity, and paroxysmal hypersynchronous patterns, are reported in the literature. About half of the children with HPE evaluated at Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children have epilepsy. These children have various seizure types; however, there are some consistent EEG findings such as hypersynchronous theta during sleep, hypersynchronous theta while awake, hypersynchronous beta during sleep, and episodic attenuation of cerebral activity, in addition to a spectrum of epileptiform discharges. This article is a review of the clinical and neuroimaging features of HPE and includes discussion of what is known about EEG findings in the disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)59-72
Number of pages14
JournalNeurodiagnostic Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 30 2002


  • Epilepsy
  • Epileptiform activity
  • Holoprosencephaly
  • Hypersynchronous beta
  • Hypersynchronous theta
  • Hypsarrhythmia
  • Isoelectric patterns
  • Seizures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


Dive into the research topics of 'Holoprosencephaly: A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this