Hepatocellular Carcinoma From Epidemiology to Prevention: Translating Knowledge into Practice

Amit G. Singal, Hashem B. El-Serag

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

382 Scopus citations


The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by dynamic temporal trends, several major established (i.e., HCV, HBV, alcohol) and emerging (i.e., diabetes, obesity, NAFLD) risk factors. Epidemiologic studies and clinical trials have identified additional demographic, clinical, pharmacological, genetic and life style factors that further affect or modify the likelihood of HCC and can be used in clinical practice to identify at-risk patients (i.e., risk stratification or prognostic algorithms) that can be targeted for prevention and early detection programs. These studies have also paved the way toward several well established preventive measures including HBV vaccination, HBV treatment, HCV treatment and HCC surveillance, and potential chemoprevention using statins, metformin or coffee. However, the effectiveness of HCC prevention in clinical practice and at the population level has lagged behind due to patient, provider, system, and societal factors. The Quality in the Continuum of Cancer Care model provides a framework for evaluating the HCC prevention processes, including potential failures that create a gap between efficacy and effectiveness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2140-2151
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Nov 2015


  • Chemoprevention
  • Cirrhosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Surveillance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology


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