Haptic interactions during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery

Cecilia Brino, Saurabh Dargar, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Kai Matthes, Suvranu De

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is viewed as an emerging surgical technique with significant potential to perform surgical interventions with minimal external scarring and reduced patient trauma. However, this technique uses an endoscope to perform surgical operations which require application of substantial forces and torques for insertion and maneuvering. We have, for the first time, developed an instrumented tool handle with a 6 axis load cell to measure the forces and torques applied during NOTES procedures and used it to make actual measurements during the performance of NOTES techniques by surgeons using an ex-vivo simulator. Data were collected for 10 subjects with varying experience levels at the annual SAGES meeting. We observed that the typical forces were about 10 N with peaks up to 25 N in the push/pull direction. A nominal torque of 50 N-mm with peaks up to 200 N-mm in the clockwise and counter-clockwise directions was observed about the push/pull axis. In comparison, the interaction forces in traditional laparoscopic surgery are in the range of 0-10 N. The data are useful not only in understanding the level of force and torque applied during actual NOTES procedures, but also in developing specifications for a custom haptic feedback system for a virtual reality-based NOTES simulator designed to train the next generation of NOTES surgeons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationIEEE Haptics Symposium 2014, HAPTICS 2014 - Proceedings
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages6
ISBN (Print)9781479931316
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes
Event2014 IEEE Haptics Symposium, HAPTICS 2014 - Houston, TX, United States
Duration: Feb 23 2014Feb 26 2014

Publication series

NameIEEE Haptics Symposium, HAPTICS
ISSN (Print)2324-7347
ISSN (Electronic)2324-7355


Conference2014 IEEE Haptics Symposium, HAPTICS 2014
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityHouston, TX


  • Haptics
  • Human factors
  • MIS surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Human-Computer Interaction


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