The majority of patients with glucose transporter type I deficiency (G1D) are haploinsufficient in SLC2A1, the gene that encodes the glucose transporter isoforms present both in the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier and in astrocytes. G1D is expected, on biochemical principles, to result in decreased blood to brain and intracerebral glucose flux, and, in mice, this is associated with diminished cerebral acetyl-coenzyme A contents. Thus, G1D probably stems from depletion (or perhaps from repletion) of energetic precursors centrally situated with respect to cerebral metabolism. Paradoxically, G1D is not associated with global neural hypoexcitability as a result of diminished glucose influx, but with focal hyperexcitability: Spike-wave epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia constitute the best-defined G1D syndromes. Many patients also exhibit dystonia, ataxia, and dysarthria, either in isolation or in conjunction with other nonmotor manifestations such as intellectual disability and microcephaly. This argues against a single disease mechanism, as no developmental event or cerebral circuit is known to account, when abnormal, for these pleiotropic abnormalities, some of which have been successfully induced in mutant mice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMovement Disorders
Subtitle of host publicationGenetics and Models: Second Edition
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9780124051959
StatePublished - 2015


  • Astrocyte
  • Ataxia
  • Blood-brain barrier
  • Dysarthria
  • Dyskinesia
  • Dystonia
  • Glucose
  • Microcephaly
  • SLC2A1
  • Transporter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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