Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a heterogeneous group of lesions that are characterized by the abnormal proliferation of the trophoblast. Morphology, behavior and clinical significance vary tremendously and range from benign, non-neoplastic lesions that cause sometimes dysfunctional uterine bleeding to aggressive, highly, malignant tumors. The recently updated 2020 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Female Genital Tumors divides GTD in molar pregnancies/ hydatidiform moles, gestational trophoblastic neoplasms, tumor-like lesions and abnormal (nonmolar) villous lesions. In this article we review the typical clinical presentations of GTDs, their histopathologic features, contributing immunohistochemical stains and current diagnostic criteria. We discuss novel insights in the proposed pathogenesis, newly proposed entities and advances in ancillary diagnostic techniques and their relevance to the histopathologic diagnosis of GTD. Additionally we briefly review current treatment options, prognosis and prognostic factors of GTDs.
- Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor
- Gestational trophoblastic disease
- Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia
- Hydatidiform mole
- Placental site trophoblastic tumor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine