Geographic barriers to prenatal care access and their consequences

Denisse S. Holcomb, Yolande Pengetnze, Ashley Steele, Albert Karam, Catherine Spong, David B. Nelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Although prenatal care has long been viewed as an important strategy toward improving maternal morbidity and mortality, limited data exist that support the premise that access to prenatal care impacts perinatal outcomes. Furthermore, little is known about geographic barriers that impact access to care in an underserved population and how this may influence perinatal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) evaluate perinatal outcomes among women with and without prenatal care and (2) examine barriers to receiving prenatal care according to block-level data of residence. We hypothesized that women without prenatal care would have worse outcomes and more barriers to receiving prenatal care services. STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women delivering at ≥24 weeks’ gestation in a large inner-city public hospital system. Maternal and neonatal data were abstracted from the electronic health record and a community-wide data initiative data set, which included socioeconomic and local geographic data from diverse sources. Maternal characteristics and perinatal outcomes were examined among women with and without prenatal care. Prenatal care was defined as at least 1 visit before delivery. Outcomes of interest were (1) preterm delivery at <37 weeks’ gestation, (2) preeclampsia or eclampsia, and (3) days in the neonatal intensive care unit after delivery. Barriers to care were analyzed, including public transportation access and location of the nearest county-sponsored prenatal clinic according to block-level location of residence. Statistical analysis included chi-square test and analysis of variance with logistic regression performed for adjustment of demographic features. RESULTS: Between January 1, 2019, and October 31, 2019, 9488 women received prenatal care and 326 women did not. Women without prenatal care differed by race and were noted to have higher rates of substance use (P=.004), preterm birth (P<.001), and longer lengths of newborn admission (P<.001). After adjustment for demographic features, higher rates of preterm birth in women without prenatal care persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 2.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.95–3.55). Women without prenatal care resided in areas that relied more on public transportation and required longer transit times (42 minutes vs 30 minutes; P=.005) with more bus stops (29 vs 17; P<.001) to the nearest county-sponsored prenatal clinic. CONCLUSION: Women without prenatal care were at a significantly increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a large inner city, women without prenatal care resided in areas with significantly higher demands for public transportation. Alternative resources, including telemedicine and ridesharing, should be explored to reduce barriers to prenatal care access.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100442
JournalAmerican journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • ZIP codes
  • access to care
  • antenatal care
  • barriers to care
  • bus routes
  • geographic mapping
  • healthcare disparities
  • inner-city population
  • perinatal outcomes
  • prenatal care
  • preterm birth
  • public transportation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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