General anesthetic techniques for enhanced recovery after surgery: Current controversies

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


General anesthesia technique can influence not only immediate postoperative outcomes, but also long-term outcomes beyond hospital stay (e.g., readmission after discharge from hospital). There is lack of evidence regarding superiority of total intravenous anesthesia over inhalation anesthesia with regards to postoperative outcomes even in high-risk population including cancer patients. Optimal balanced general anesthetic technique for enhance recovery after elective surgery in adults includes avoidance of routine use preoperative midazolam, avoidance of deep anesthesia, use of opioid-sparing approach, and minimization of neuromuscular blocking agents and appropriate reversal of residual paralysis. Given that the residual effects of drugs used during anesthesia can increase postoperative morbidity and delay recovery, it is prudent to use a minimal number of drug combinations, and the drugs used are shorter-acting and administered at the lowest possible dose. It is imperative that the discerning anesthesiologist consider whether each drug used is really necessary for accomplishing perioperative goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-541
Number of pages11
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • enhanced recovery after surgery
  • general anesthesia
  • inhaled anesthetics
  • neuromuscular blocking drugs
  • nitrous oxide
  • opioids
  • total intravenous anesthesia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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