Functional parenting in Pakistan

Sunita Mahtani Stewart, Michael H. Bond, Riffat Moazam Zaman, Catherine McBride-Chang, Nirmala Rao, L. M. Ho, Richard Fielding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

46 Scopus citations


We obtained information regarding parenting perceptions and psychosocial adjustment from 102 Pakistani young women. Parenting behaviours assessed pertained to warmth and dominating control, as well as to "training" (proposed by Chao as having relevance in other Asian cultures), and indigenously relevant items related to religion and shame/honour. Adjustment measures included self-esteem, relationship harmony, and self-perceived health, shown to have relevance in other Asian cultures. In two-factor analyses, perceptions of parents' warmth and training behaviours combined into a factor that correlated positively with adjustment measures, whereas the dominating control factor correlated negatively. In three-factor analyses, perceptions of mothers' training behaviours predicted variance in relationship harmony, independent of perceptions of warmth and dominating control behaviours. These findings support Chao's views that the dimension of training may play a particularly important role in functional parenting in some non-Western cultures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)747-770
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Behavioral Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Life-span and Life-course Studies


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