Frozen embryo transfer preparation

David Prokai, Orhan Bukulmez

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The increased use of embryo freezing has placed greater emphasis on techniques and protocols regarding frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET). While no one method has emerged as the superior choice, the various strategies in use each have their own benefits as well as drawbacks. Natural cycle FET allows a more physiologic and potentially less expensive way of transferring embryos at the cost of cycle unpredictability which many clinics may not be able to accommodate. Artificial cycle FET allows more control over embryo thawing and transfer but requires use of additional medications which invariably increase cost and side effects. Limited number of embryos obtained from patients with diminished ovarian reserve and/or advanced reproductive age makes FET preparation and monitoring of the utmost importance. In the future, further studies involving exclusively frozen cycles with the inclusion of diverse patient subgroups will hopefully offer guidance as to the most optimal FET protocol to use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDiminished Ovarian Reserve and Assisted Reproductive Technologies
Subtitle of host publicationCurrent Research and Clinical Management
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages22
ISBN (Electronic)9783030232351
ISBN (Print)9783030232344
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019


  • Artificial cycle FET
  • FET
  • Frozen embryo transfer
  • Luteal support
  • Modified natural cycle FET
  • Natural cycle FET

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Professions(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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