Feasibility of P wave Centric Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Monitoring in Infants and Young Children

Angela G. Romme, Krishna K. Umapathi, Hoang H. Nguyen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


P wave centric ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring has emerged as an important tool aiding the diagnosis of arrhythmias. However, their efficacy and user experience in infants and young children are not well established. A retrospective study was performed to detail clinical and user experience of ECG monitoring using the Carnation Ambulatory Monitor (CAM) patch (Bardy Diagnostics Inc., Seattle, WA) in patients less than 10 kg. Additionally, 2 different monitor locations (over the sternum and horizontal over the left axilla) were assessed to address the optimal placement in these patients. A total of 33 CAM reports from 25 patients, aged 0 to15 months were included in the study. Mean patient age was 4.2 months ± 5.0 and mean weight was 5.3 kg ± 2.4. Thirty-six percent of patients (9/25) had known congenital heart disease. Indications for monitoring included: tachyarrhythmia (15/33, 45%), bradyarrhythmia (6/33, 18%), ectopic rhythm (9/33, 27%), cardiac tumor (1/33, 1%), and prolonged QT interval (1/33, 1%). All CAM reports showed clear, identifiable P waves which were diagnostic and lead to changes in medical management for 30% of patients (e.g., medication adjustments or discharge from cardiology care). We found the upright placement over the sternum performed better than the horizontal placement over the left axilla for small infants and children less than 10 kg. A P wave centric single-lead ECG monitor is helpful in providing accurate diagnostics tracings in infants and small children aiding in their clinical management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1126-1132
Number of pages7
JournalPediatric Cardiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Ambulatory ECG monitor
  • Holter
  • P wave centric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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