Fatty Liver Disease in a Prospective North American Cohort of Adults with Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis B Virus Coinfection

Mandana Khalili, Wendy C. King, David E. Kleiner, Mamta K. Jain, Raymond T. Chung, Mark Sulkowski, Mauricio Lisker-Melman, David K. Wong, Marc Ghany, Arun Sanyal, Richard K. Sterling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and fatty liver disease (FLD) are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Correlates of FLD and its relationship with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were examined longitudinally in HIV-HBV coinfection. Methods: From 28/4/2014-7/11/2018, 114 HIV-HBV adults had liver biopsy and were followed for a median of 3 years (ancillary study of Hepatitis B Research Network). Steatohepatitis was based on presence of steatosis, ballooning, and perisinusoidal fibrosis. FLD was defined as ≥5% steatosis and/or steatohepatitis. Results: Median age was 49 years, 93% were male, 51% black, 93% had HIV RNA <400 copies/mL and 83% HBV DNA <1000 IU/mL. Thirty percent had FLD (20% steatosis, 10% steatohepatitis). Those with FLD had higher median triglyceride (171 vs 100 mg/dL, P<.01) and small, dense LDL (44 vs 29 mg/dL, P<.01) and lower HDL-2-C (9 vs 12 mg/dL, P=.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and alcohol use, white and other versus black race (ORs, 8.49 and 16.54, respectively), ALT (OR, 3.13/doubling), hypertension (OR, 10.93), hyperlipidemia (OR, 4.36), and diabetes family history (OR, 5.38) were associated with having FLD (all P <. 05). Steatohepatitis or steatosis alone (vs none) was associated with higher ALT over time (1.93 and 1.34 times higher, respectively; P<.001), with adjustment for age, sex, and HBV DNA. Conclusions: About 30% with HIV-HBV coinfection had FLD including 10% with steatohepatitis. FLD was associated with non-black race, metabolic risks, an atherogenic lipid profile, and elevated ALT over time. Thus, identification of FLD and management of adverse metabolic profiles are critically important in HIV-HBV coinfection. Clinical Trial Registration. NCT 01924455.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E3275-E3285
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number9
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • adipose tissue insulin resistance
  • cardiovascular risk
  • inflammation
  • nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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