Facts and de facto treatment of spasticity

Heakyung Kim, Ray Stanford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Recent studies have generally shown favorable outcomes for the use of botulinum toxin (BoNT) injections for the treatment of lower extremity spasticity in children with cerebral palsy. The randomized controlled trials and placebo trials are well described although even those and other studies show high variability in methodology for use of BoNT. This raises questions about which strategies are the most effective. In order to hone the technique, the aim of this review is to discuss these specific parameters: toxin type, dosing, series of injections, localization method, age, number of muscles, and troubleshooting poor outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-193
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • botulinum toxin
  • Cerebral palsy
  • pediatric
  • spasticity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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