Factors Associated With High and Low Life Satisfaction 10 Years After Traumatic Brain Injury

Therese M. O'Neil-Pirozzi, Shanti M. Pinto, Mitch Sevigny, Flora M. Hammond, Shannon B. Juengst, Charles H. Bombardier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Objective: To identify correlates of life satisfaction at 10 years after moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) using an extreme phenotyping approach. Design: Effect sizes were calculated in this observational cohort study to estimate relationships of 10-year postinjury extremely high, extremely low, and moderate life satisfaction with (1) pre-injury demographics, injury-related factors, and functional characteristics at inpatient rehabilitation admission and discharge; and (2) postinjury demographics and clinical and functional measures at 10 years postinjury. Setting: Multicenter longitudinal database study. Participants: People identified from the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research TBI Database with life satisfaction data at 10 years post TBI (N=4800). Interventions: Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure: Satisfaction With Life Scale. Results: Although few pre-injury factors or clinical and functional factors shortly after injury were associated with 10-year life satisfaction groups, the following 10-year postinjury factors were associated with extremely high vs extremely low life satisfaction group membership: greater independent functioning, less disability, more frequent community participation, being employed, and having fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms. Those with extremely high life satisfaction were distinctly different from those with moderate and extremely low satisfaction. Extremely high life satisfaction was underrepresented among non-Hispanic Black persons relative to non-Hispanic White persons. Relationships between life satisfaction and independent functioning, disability, and participation were attenuated among non-Hispanic Black persons. Conclusions: Extreme phenotyping analysis complements existing knowledge regarding life satisfaction after moderate to severe TBI and may inform acute and postacute clinical service delivery by comparing extremely high and extremely low life satisfaction subgroups. Findings suggest little association among personal, clinical, and functional characteristics early post TBI and life satisfaction 10 years later. Contemporaneous correlates of extremely high life satisfaction exist at 10 years post TBI, although the positive relationship of these variables to life satisfaction may be attenuated for non-Hispanic Black persons.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2164-2173
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Patient outcome assessment
  • Patient-relevant outcome
  • Personal satisfaction
  • Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation outcome
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation


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