Factor analysis of neuroanatomical and clinical characteristics of holoprosencephaly

Jin S. Hahn, A. James Barkovich, Elaine E. Stashinko, Steve L. Kinsman, Mauricio R. Delgado, Nancy J. Clegg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between neuroradiologic and clinical characteristics in holoprosencephaly (HPE) using the multivariate analysis called factor analysis. HPE is a brain malformation characterized by incomplete cleavage of the cerebral hemispheres and deep gray structures. We performed evaluations on 89 children with HPE that included their history, developmental assessment, and physical examination. Ten clinical variables included in factor analysis were the grade of spasticity, dystonia, choreoathetosis, hypotonia, mobility, upper extremity/hand function, expressive language, feeding/swallowing difficulty, endocrinopathies, and temperature dysregulation. Five neuroimaging variables graded by pediatric neuroradiologists were the grade of HPE (from least to most severe: lobar, semilobar, and alobar) and the degree of non-separation of caudate, lentiform, thalamic, and hypothalamic nuclei. Factor analysis using principle component extraction and varimax rotation was utilized. Four significant factors were identified: (1) neuroimaging/developmental factor, (2) motor factor, (3) hypothalamic/oromotor factor, and (4) hypotonia factor. These four factors accounted for 65.2% of the variance. In this factor analysis of HPE patients, we were able to reduce the large number of clinical and radiological variables into four factors. These factors and the constructs underlying them provide structure to the data and provide key parameters for future studies involving neurodevelopmental outcomes in HPE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-419
Number of pages7
JournalBrain and Development
Issue number7
StatePublished - Aug 2006


  • Brain malformation
  • Factor analysis
  • Holoprosencephaly
  • Neuroimaging
  • Outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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