Facial Asymmetry in Children With Unilateral Congenital Ptosis

Phillip A. Tenzel, Karen Brown, Brenda Zhou, Kamel M. Itani, Ronald Mancini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Purpose: To analyze facial asymmetry in children with unilateral congenital ptosis. Methods: This is a retrospective review of pediatric patients undergoing ptosis repair between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2020. Charts were reviewed to ensure a diagnosis of idiopathic unilateral congenital ptosis. Sex, age, laterality, margin to reflex distance 1, levator function, and surgical intervention were collected. Clear preoperative photos without head turn were included. Using the ImageJ software (nih.gov), landmarks of the periorbital region, midface, and lower face were marked, and measurements between these landmarks were taken. Two-tailed Student t tests were used to compare measurements between the ptotic and non-ptotic sides. Relationships between different measurements on the same side of the face were analyzed using paired-variable regressions. Results: Forty-four patients with unilateral congenital ptosis were included. The surgical management consisted of Mullerectomy in 9 of 44 (20%), levator resection in 15 of 44 (34%), and frontalis suspension in 20 of 44 (46%) patients. The side of the face with blepharoptosis was found to more often have smaller margin to reflex distance 1 (p < 0.001), smaller margin to reflex distance 2 (p < 0.005), smaller horizontal palpebral fissure (p < 0.05), shorter midface height (p < 0.001), and a more inferiorly displaced lateral canthus (canthal angle, p < 0.001) relative to the non-ptotic side of the face. The mean head tilt of patients with right sided ptosis (1.37° right tilt) was statistically significantly different from those with left sided ptosis (0.85° left tilt; p = 0.04). Conclusions: In children with unilateral congenital ptosis, the ptotic side of the face was found to be the nondominant side of the face. Patients were also found to have ipsilateral head tilt.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)483-489
Number of pages7
JournalOphthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Ophthalmology


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