Face validation of the Virtual Electrosurgery Skill Trainer (VEST©)

Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Baichun Li, Amie Miller, Hussna Wakily, Stephanie B. Jones, Steven Schwaitzberg, Daniel B. Jones, Suvranu De, Jaisa Olasky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background: Electrosurgery is a modality that is widely used in surgery, whose use has resulted in injuries, OR fires and even death. The SAGES has established the FUSE program to address the knowledge gap in the proper and safe usage of electrosurgical devices. Complementing it, we have developed the Virtual Electrosurgery Skill Trainer (VEST©), which is designed to train subjects in both cognitive and motor skills necessary to safely operate electrosurgical devices. The objective of this study is to asses the face validity of the VEST© simulator. Methods: Sixty-three subjects were recruited at the 2014 SAGES Learning Center. They all completed the monopolar electrosurgery module on the VEST© simulator. At the end of the study, subjects assessed the face validity with questions that were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: The subjects were divided into two groups; FUSE experience (n = 15) and no FUSE experience (n = 48). The median score for both the groups was 4 or higher on all questions and 5 on questions on effectiveness of VEST© in aiding learning electrosurgery fundamentals. Questions on using the simulator in their own skills lab and recommending it to their peers also scored at 5. Mann–Whitney U test showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) indicating a general agreement. 46 % of the respondents preferred VEST compared with 52 % who preferred animal model and 2 % preferred both for training in electrosurgery. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the face validity of the VEST© simulator. High scores showed that the simulator was visually realistic and reproduced lifelike tissue effects and the features were adequate enough to provide high realism. The self-learning instructional material was also found to be very useful in learning the fundamentals of electrosurgery. Adding more modules would increase the applicability of the VEST© simulator.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)730-738
Number of pages9
JournalSurgical endoscopy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D virtual reality (VR)
  • Electrosurgery
  • FUSE
  • Force feedback
  • Virtual Electrosurgery Skill Trainer (VEST)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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