Despite the exceptional efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in healing reflux esophagitis complicating gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), up to 40% of patients who take PPIs for GERD complain of persistent GERD symptoms. There is no clear consensus on the type, dosing, and duration of PPI therapy required to establish a diagnosis of PPI-refractory GERD symptoms, but most authorities do not consider patients “PPI-refractory” unless they have been on double-dose PPIs. This article discusses the mechanisms that might underlie heartburn that does not respond PPIs and an approach to the management of patients with PPI-refractory GERD symptoms.
- Functional heartburn
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease
- Reflux hypersensitivity
ASJC Scopus subject areas