Background: Maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the dialysis modality of choice for infants and young children. However, there are limited outcome data for those who undergo PD catheter insertion and initiate maintenance PD within the first year of life. Methods: Using data from the Children’s Hospital Association’s Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Collaborative (SCOPE), we examined peritonitis rates and patient survival in 156 infants from 29 North American pediatric dialysis centers who had a chronic PD catheter placed prior to their first birthday. Results: In-hospital and overall annualized rates of peritonitis were 1.73 and 0.76 episodes per patient-year, respectively. Polycystic kidney disease was the most frequent renal diagnosis and pulmonary hypoplasia the most common co-morbidity in infants with peritonitis. Multivariable regression models demonstrated that nephrectomy at or prior to PD catheter placement and G-tube insertion after catheter placement were associated with a nearly sixfold and nearly threefold increased risk of peritonitis, respectively. Infants with peritonitis had longer initial hospital stays and lower overall survival (86.3 vs. 95.6%, respectively; P < 0.02) than those without an episode of peritonitis. Conclusions: In this large cohort of infants with ESRD, the frequency of peritonitis was high and several risk factors associated with the development of peritonitis were identified. Given that peritonitis was associated with a longer duration of initial hospitalization and increased mortality, increased attention to the potentially modifiable risk factors for infection is needed.
- Peritoneal dialysis
- Quality improvement
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health