Endocrine hypertension

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


Hypertension may be caused by abnormal synthesis of, or response to, various hormones. The proportion of pediatric hypertension cases resulting from such problems probably represents at most a few percent of cases overall but a higher fraction of cases of severe hypertension, those occurring in the very young, or cases clustering in families. Most endocrine hypertension involves the adrenal gland and its hormones. The adrenal gland is composed of two endocrine tissues: the medulla (secreting catecholamines) and the cortex (synthesizing cortisol and aldosterone). Pheochromocytoma is mainly a disease of the adrenal medulla, although extramedullary sites may be involved. Many different diseases affecting the adrenal cortex can cause hypertension. These include hypertensive forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, primary aldosteronism due to hyperplasia of the zona glomerulosa or to adenomas, and Cushing syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid exposure) due to iatrogenic etiologies, to pituitary or adrenal adenomas, or other tumors secreting excessive ACTH. Hypertension can also be caused by thyrotoxicosis due to Graves disease or to the thyrotoxic phase of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is important to accurately diagnose these disorders because the associated hypertension requires, and usually responds well to, specific treatment of the underlying condition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPediatric Hypertension
Subtitle of host publicationThird Edition
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages16
ISBN (Electronic)9781627034906
ISBN (Print)9781627034890
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013


  • ACTH
  • Adrenal
  • Aldosterone
  • Catecholamines
  • Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • Cortisol
  • Cushing syndrome
  • Graves disease
  • Thyrotoxicosis
  • Thyroxine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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