EMAP II: A modulator of neovascularization in the developing lung

Maegaret Schwarz, Matt Lee, Fangrong Zhang, Jingsong Zhao, Yangsun Jin, Susan Smith, Janki Bhuva, David Stern, David Warburton, Vaughn Starnes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Neovascularization is a key regulatory process in fetal growth and development. Although factors promoting growth and development of the pulmonary vasculature have been investigated, nothing is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that may counteract these stimuli. Endothelial monocyte- activating polypeptide (EMAP) II has recently been identified as an antiangiogenic factor in tumor vascular development. We postulated that EMAP II is a putative negative modulator of lung vascular growth. EMAP II mRNA and protein decrease fivefold (P < 0.01) as the developing lungs in the fetal mouse progress from having poor vascularization (day 14) to having complete vascular development at term (day 18.5). EMAP II protein expression continues to remain low throughout postnatal life and into adulthood, with the exception of a surge that correlates with microvascular maturation. Furthermore, through the use of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, EMAP II is localized throughout the lung, with significant expression in the submyoepithelial area during the early stages of lung development when there is minimal vascular development. In contrast, EMAP II is distributed around the large vessels during the end of vascular development, suggesting that EMAP II modulates the neovascularization process. We speculate that EMAP II is a director of neovascularization in the developing lung.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)L365-L375
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Issue number2 20-2
StatePublished - Feb 1999


  • Angiogenesis
  • Antiangiogenesis
  • Fetal
  • Pulmonary
  • Vasculogenesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'EMAP II: A modulator of neovascularization in the developing lung'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this