Eicosapentaenoic acid and 5-HEPE enhance macrophage-mediated Treg induction in mice

Toshiharu Onodera, Atsunori Fukuhara, Jihoon Shin, Tomonori Hayakawa, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro Shimomura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Beyond its direct effects, the metabolic products of EPA also regulate various immune responses. Animal experiments demonstrated that EPA reduces adipose inflammation in high fat diet-induced obese mouse. However, the effects of EPA on infiltrated immune cell populations in adipose tissue and underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We performed flow cytometry of stromal vascular fraction of epididymal adipose tissues from C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice fed normal chow mixed with or without 5% EPA. The numbers of hematopoietic cells, including Tregs, were higher in both C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice fed EPA diet compared with control diet. EPA enhanced the induction of Tregs in co-cultures of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and naïve T cells. Among EPA metabolites, 5-HEPE was the most potent inducer of Tregs. GPR119 and GPR120 are receptors for 5-HEPE and EPA, respectively, and antagonist of GPR119 blocked Treg induction by EPA in the presence of ATMs. Alox5 gene encodes 5-lipoxygenase enzyme catalyzing EPA into 5-HEPE, and inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase down-regulated EPA-mediated induction of adipose tissue Tregs in ob/ob mice. The study findings demonstrated that both EPA and 5-HEPE enhance ATM-mediated Treg induction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4560
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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