Dynamic metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [2-13C]pyruvate using spiral chemical shift imaging with alternating spectral band excitation

Sonal Josan, Ralph Hurd, Jae Mo Park, Yi Fen Yen, Ron Watkins, Adolf Pfefferbaum, Daniel Spielman, Dirk Mayer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Purpose: In contrast to [1-13C]pyruvate, hyperpolarized [2- 13C]pyruvate permits the ability to follow the 13C label beyond flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and investigate the incorporation of acetyl-coenzyme A into different metabolic pathways. However, chemical shift imaging (CSI) with [2-13C]pyruvate is challenging owing to the large spectral dispersion of the resonances, which also leads to severe chemical shift displacement artifacts for slice-selective acquisitions. Methods: This study introduces a sequence for three-dimensional CSI of [2- 13C]pyruvate using spectrally selective excitation of limited frequency bands containing a subset of metabolites. Dynamic CSI data were acquired alternately from multiple frequency bands in phantoms for sequence testing and in vivo in rat heart. Results: Phantom experiments verified the radiofrequency pulse design and demonstrated that the signal behavior of each group of resonances was unaffected by excitation of the other frequency bands. Dynamic three-dimensional 13C CSI data demonstrated the sequence capability to image pyruvate, lactate, acetylcarnitine, glutamate, and acetoacetate, enabling the analysis of organ-specific spectra and metabolite time courses. Conclusions: The presented method allows CSI of widely separated resonances without chemical shift displacement artifact, acquiring multiple frequency bands alternately to obtain dynamic time-course information. This approach enables robust imaging of downstream metabolic products of acetyl-coenzyme A with hyperpolarized [2-13C]pyruvate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2051-2058
Number of pages8
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • dynamic metabolic imaging
  • spiral CSI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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