Different MRF4 knockout alleles differentially disrupt Myf-5 expression: Cis-regulatory interactions at the MRF4/Myf-5 locus

Jeong Kyo Yoon, Eric N. Olson, Hans Henning Arnold, Barbara J. Wold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


Three different null alleles of the myogenic bHLH gene MRF4/herculin/Myf-6 were created recently. The three alleles were similar in design but were surprisingly different in the intensity of their phenotypes, which ranged from complete viability of homozygotes to complete lethality. One possible explanation for these differences is that each mutation altered expression from the nearby Myf-5 gene to a different extent. This possibility was first raised by the observation that the most severe MRF4 knockout allele expresses no Myf-5 RNA and is a developmental phenocopy of the Myf-5 null mutation. Furthermore, initial studies of the two weaker alleles had shown that their differences in viability correlate with the intensity of rib skeletal defects, and the most extreme version of this rib defect is the hallmark phenotype of Myf-5 null animals. In the present study we tested this hypothesis for the two milder MRF4 alleles. By analyzing compound heterozygous animals carrying either the intermediate or the weakest MRF4 knockout allele on one chromosome 10 and a Myf-5 knockout allele on the other chromosome, we found that both of these MRF4 alleles apparently downregulate Myf-5 expression by a cis-acting mechanism. Compound heterozygotes showed increased mortality of the normally viable MRF4 allele, together with intensified rib defects for both MRF4 alleles and increased deficits in myotomal Myf-5 expression. The allele-specific gradation in phenotypes also suggested that rib morphogenesis is profoundly sensitive to quantitative differences in Myf-5 function if Myf-5 products drop below hemizygous levels. The mechanistic basis for cis interactions at the MRF4/Myf-5 locus was further examined by fusing a DNA segment containing the entire MRF4 structural gene, including all sequences deleted in the three MRF knockout alleles, with a basal promoter and a lacZ reporter. Transgenic embryos showed specific LacZ expression in myotomes in a pattern that closely resembles the expression of Myf-5 RNA. cis-acting interactions between Myf-5 and MRF4 may therefore play a significant role in regulating expression of these genes in the early myotomes of wildtype embryos.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)349-362
Number of pages14
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 15 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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