Differences in level of care at the end of life according to race

Rebecca W. Johnson, L. Kristin Newby, Christopher B. Granger, Wendy A. Cook, Eric D. Peterson, Melvin Echols, Wanda Bride, Bradi B. Granger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Background Tailoring care for patients and their families at the end of life is important. Purpose To examine factors associated with patients' choices for level of care at the end of life. Methods Data on demographics and level of care (full code, do not resuscitate, or withdrawal of life support) were collected on 1072 patients who died between January 1998 and June 2006 on a cardiac care unit. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with level of care. Results Median (interquartile range) age of blacks was 64 (50-74) years and of whites was 70 (62-78) years. At the time of death, the level of care differed significantly between blacks and whites: 41.8% (n = 112) of blacks versus 26.7% (n = 194) of whites chose full code (P <.001), 37.3% (n = 96) of blacks versus 43.9% (n = 317) of whites chose do not resuscitate (P =.03), and 20.9% (n = 54) of blacks versus 29.3% (n = 210) of whites chose withdrawal of life support (P =.005). After age, sex, diagnosis, and lengths of stay in intensive care unit and hospital were controlled for, blacks were more likely than whites to choose full code status at the time of death (odds ratio 1.91 [95% confidence interval, 2.63-1.39], P <.001). Conclusions Blacks are 1.9 times as likely as others to choose full code at time of death. Cultural differences should be acknowledged when providing end-of-life care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)335-343
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Critical Care
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care


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