Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Nasal CSF Leaks and Encephaloceles

Cynthia S. Wang, Clarice Brown, Ron B. Mitchell, Gopi Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of review: To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of pediatric nasal encephaloceles. Recent findings: Encephaloceles and meningoencephaloceles are on the differential diagnosis for congenital midline nasal masses. These lesions are treated surgically to prevent craniofacial deformities and meningitis and to address symptoms such as a nasal obstruction, feeding difficulties, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. With the advent of endoscopic skull base approaches and instruments, surgical treatment of nasal encephaloceles have transitioned from large bicoronal external approaches to more minimally invasive endonasal endoscopic approaches. Endoscopic surgical approaches are safe in pediatric patients. Summary: Pediatric intranasal encephaloceles are more frequently managed endoscopically. However, due to the rarity of this condition, further multi-institutional research is needed to examine long-term outcomes for this surgical approach.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)326-334
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent Treatment Options in Allergy
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • Encephalocele
  • Endoscopic encephalocele repair
  • Meningoencephalocele
  • Pediatric CSF leak

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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