Development of a novel minimally invasive technique to washout necrotic bone marrow content from epiphyseal bone: A preliminary cadaveric bone study

Felipe Alves do Monte, Min Sung Park, Vishal Gokani, Mohit Singhal, Chi Ma, Olumide O. Aruwajoye, Brad Niese, Xiaohua Liu, Harry K.W. Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Introduction: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is a juvenile ischemic osteonecrosis which produces extensive necrotic cell debris and release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the femoral head. The necrotic bone environment induces a chronic inflammatory repair response with excessive bone resorption leading to deformity and early osteoarthritis. Currently there is no minimally invasive method to clear the necrotic materials from the bone to decrease the inflammatory burden of the necrotic environment and to improve the healing process. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that a novel minimally invasive two-needle saline washing technique would be effective to remove cell debris, proteins, and fat from the marrow space of porcine cadaveric humeral heads (HHs). Materials and methods: Twenty-two HHs were subjected to three freeze-thaw cycles to simulate osteonecrosis prior to the wash procedure which consisted of placement of two 15-gauge intraosseous needles followed by incremental saline wash. After the washout procedure, the solutions were collected for measurements of turbidity, protein concentration, and cell count. The HHs were analyzed by optical scanning and histology. Results: The solution collected after each wash showed a significant decrease in the turbidity, cell count, and protein concentration (p < 0.05). Histologic assessment showed significantly decreased cell debris and adipocytes in the washed group compared to the unwashed group (p < 0.001). Discussion/conclusion: The two-needle intraosseous wash technique effectively removed cell debris and proteins from the marrow space. The technique may be used to reduce the necrotic cell debris and DAMPs present in the necrotic bone. Level of evidence: III, in vitro comparative study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)709-715
Number of pages7
JournalOrthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2020


  • Avascular necrosis
  • Bone wash
  • Damage associated molecular patterns
  • Ischemic osteonecrosis
  • Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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