Cytogenomic characterization of double minute heterogeneity in therapy related acute myeloid leukemia

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8 Scopus citations


Breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens containing alkylating agents and anthracyclines are at an increased risk for secondary myeloid malignancies, either acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Complex genomic changes (karyotypes and/or gene amplification) accompany the development of the secondary neoplasms. Here we present a unique case of a breast cancer patient who developed secondary AML within 18 months of treatment with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, docetaxel, carboplatin (TCHP) and radiation. Leukemia cells had catastrophic alterations in chromosomes 8, 11, and 17. Genetic abnormalities in the leukemia cells included amplification of MYC and KMT2A as double minutes, and deletion and mutational inactivation of TP53 Concurrent amplification of different genes at different levels and on different double minutes, we have named “double minute heterogeneity.” Clinically, this case highlights the need to identify genes amplified in secondary myeloid malignancies by cytogenomic microarray (CMA) analysis since these may have therapeutic implications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-75
Number of pages7
JournalCancer Genetics
StatePublished - Oct 2019


  • Amplification
  • Breast cancer
  • Double minutes
  • KMT2A
  • MYC
  • Secondary AML

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cancer Research


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